M N Roy

Topics: Indian National Congress, Communism, Anushilan Samiti Pages: 10 (3323 words) Published: February 10, 2014
Manabendra Nath Roy (Bengali: মানবেন্দ্রনাথ রায়) (1887–1954), born Narendra Nath Bhattacharya, was an Indian nationalist revolutionary, radical activist and political theorist. Roy was a founder of the communist parties in Mexico and India, and a delegate to congresses of the Communist International. Following the rise of Joseph Stalin, Roy left the mainline communist movement to pursue an independent radical politics. In 1940 Roy was instrumental in the formation of the Radical Democratic Party, an organization in which he played a leading role for much of the decade of the 1940s. Roy later moved away from Marxism to become an exponent of the philosophy of radical humanism. Contents [hide]

1 Biography
1.1 Early years
1.2 Nationalist revolutionary
1.3 The Indo-German conspiracy
1.4 International revolutionary
1.5 Imprisonment
1.6 Radical humanist
1.7 Death and legacy
2 Footnotes
3 Works
4 Further reading
5 External links
6 See also
Biography[edit source | editbeta]

Early years[edit source | editbeta]
Narendra Nath "Naren" Bhattacharya, later known as M. N. Roy, was born on 21 March 1887 at Arbelia, located in the 24 Parganas of West Bengal, near Calcutta (Kolkata).[1] The Bhattacharyas were Sakta brahmins — a family of hereditary priests.[2] Naren's paternal grandfather was the head priest of the goddess Ksheputeswari in the village of Ksheput, located in the Midnapore district of West Bengal.[2] Naren's father also served for a time in priestly capacity there, although the large size of his family — he being one of 11 siblings — forced a relocation to the village of Arbelia and a change of occupation.[2] Following the death of his first wife, the elder Bhattacharya married Basantakumari Devi, the niece of Dwarkanath Vidyabhusan and was appointed as a teacher of Sanskrit in the nearby Arbelia English school.[3] The couple had a total of eight children, including the fourth-born Naren.[2] Naren Bhattacharya's early schooling took place at Arbelia.[3] In 1898 the family moved to Kodalia.[3] Bhattacharya continued his studies at the Harinavi Anglo-Sanskrit School, at which his father taught, until 1905.[3] Bhattacharya later enrolled at the National College under Sri Aurobindo, before moving to the Bengal Technical Institute, where he studied Engineering and Chemistry.[3] Much of Bhattacharya's knowledge was gained through self-study, however.[3] Nationalist revolutionary[edit source | editbeta]

Towards the end of the 19th Century militant nationalism began to spread among the educated middle classes of Bengal, inspired by the writings of Bankim and Vivekananda.[4] Naren Bhattacharya was swept up in this movement, reading both of these leading luminaries extensively.[4] According to one biographer, Roy gained an appreciation from Bankim that true religion required one not to be cloistered from the world, but to work actively for the public good; Vivekananda reinforced this notion of social service and further advanced the idea that Hinduism and Indian culture was superior to anything the western world could offer.[5] With his cousin and childhood friend Hari Kumar Chakravarti (1882–1963), he formed a band of free-thinkers including Satcowri Banerjee and the brothers, Saileshvar and Shyamsundar Bose. Two other cousins of Bhattacharya and Chakravarti — Phani and Narendra Chakravarti — often came from Deoghar, where they went to school with Barin Ghosh.[6] A mysterious Vedic scholar, Mokshadacharan Samadhyayi, active organiser of secret branches of the Anushilan Samiti in Chinsura started frequenting Bhattacharya group. In July 1905 a partition of Bengal was announced, scheduled to take effect in October. A spontaneous mass movement aimed at annulment of the partition emerged, giving radical nationalists like Naren Bhattacharya and his co-thinkers an opportunity to build broader support for their ideas.[7] Following his expulsion from high school for organizing a meeting and a march against the partition,...
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