1) Firstly they agreed that important changes brought about by revolution had to be preserved. Secondly, at a fundamental level, all of the contenders believed that history was moving towards a socialist and then a communist society. Thirdly, the contenders were passionate believers of that one day the revolution would spread to Europe and then to the whole world. 2) ‘Leninism’ meant the ideas of Lenin. The first form of Leninism focused on Lenin’s policies during the civil war of 1918-1921. The second form of Leninism took inspiration from the ‘New economic policy’ introduced in 1921. 3) The left wing party was represented by Trotsky throughout the 1920’s. The right wing by Bukharin. Zinoviev and Kamenev switched between the right and left in 1925, and as a result they lost credibility with many within the party. Stalin avoided taking extreme positions on any of the most divisive issues and was therefore considered to be in the ideological centre of the party.
The Great Industrialisation Debate
1) In 1921, Lenin tried to solve the problem of Russia’s economic backwardness by introducing the semi-capitalist policy, the NEP, and he planned for it to last a very long time. 2) By 1923, the economy had stabilised. This led Trotsky to call for radical change in policy. The left wing party argued that the NEP was both ideologically and economically misguided. 3) The NEP favoured the peasants and returned power to the capitalists at the expense of the working class, whereas the communist principles gave power to the industrial workers. 4) Preobrazhensky proposed squeezing the peasants through heavy taxes. The profits raised from this taxation would be invested in heavy industry. 5) The right wing of the party emphasised that the Soviet government was based on an alliance of the workers and the peasants. They believed that this alliance would be threatened by increasing taxes on the peasants. 6) Bukharin suggested that the NEP should last for a...
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