Running head: TECHNOLOGY AND DECISION MAKING
Technology and Decision Making
University of Phoenix
November 15, 2008
Technology and Decision Making
Technology, decision-making processes, and data accessibility have changed dramatically in recent years. This paper will discuss systems and informatics theories. The paper will confer on the Data, Information, and Knowledge (DIK) Model. The role of expert system in nursing care and medicine will be provided. Decision aids and decision support systems are used everyday providing focus, leadership and direction within technology and will be examined. The use of technology for patient and client management will be explored. An analysis of the impact of technology on healthcare and health status will be investigated. Systems and Informatics Theories
Systems are “a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements forming a complex whole” (Systems, n.d., Definition). Systems describe healthcare, schools, computers, and a person. The systems are either open or closed. Closed systems are inoperable to function with others third party products and open systems are designed to allow third party products to plug in or interoperate with the system. Neither system interacts with the environment. Open systems consist of three characteristics; purpose, functions, and structure (Englebardt and Nelson, 2002). Systems can have more than one purpose based on the needs of the user. Functions that the system will need to carry out need to be identified for the system to achieve its purpose. The “systems are structured in ways that allow them to perform their functions” (Englebardt & Nelson, 2002, p.6). The two types of models used to conceptualize the structure of a system; hierarchical and web (Englebardt & Nelson, 2002). Some examples of system applications are; institution wide, specialty support, documentation, administrations, operations, expert, stand alone information, and decision support. The study of healthcare informatics incorporates theories from information Nursing science, computer science, cognitive science, along with other sciences used in the healthcare delivery (Englebardt & Nelson, 2002). Three models that represent the informatics theories are; Shannon and Weaver’s information-communication model, Blum’s model and The Nelson data to wisdom continuum. Shannon and Weaver’s model states that a message starts with the sender and is converted to a code by the encoder. The converted message can be letters, words, music, symbols or a computer code (Englebardt & Nelson, 2002). The message is carried by a channel and along with the message noise is transmitted in the space to the decoder where the message is converted to a format that is understood by the receiver. “Bruce L. Blum developed a definition of information from an analysis of the accomplishments in medical computing” (Englebardt & Nelson, 2002, p.12). According to Blum the three types of healthcare computing applications are; data, information and knowledge (Englebardt & Nelson, 2002). Data is information that is not interpreted. Data that is processed and displayed is categorized as information and when the data and information are combined and formalized knowledge results (Englebardt & Nelson, 2002). “A knowledge base includes the interrelationship between the data and information” (Englebardt & Nelson, 2002, p. 13). The Nelson Data to Wisdom Continuum states the four types of healthcare computing applications are; data, information, knowledge and wisdom. The four overlap at all times. Data is the naming, collecting and organizing the message. Information is further organizing and interpreting the message. Knowledge occurs when the message is interpreted, integrated and understood. Wisdom is the ability to understand and apply the message with compassion. Data, Information and Knowledge Model
“Nursing informatics, as defined by the American Nurses...
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