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For the Western term for the form of government in which a state is governed by a Communist party, see Communist state. For the ideology upheld in multiple Communist states, see Marxism–Leninism. Page semi-protected
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Communism (from Latin communis – common, universal) is a revolutionary socialist movement to create a classless, moneyless and stateless social order structured upon common ownership of the means of production, as well as a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of this social order. This movement, in its Marxist–Leninist interpretations, significantly influenced the history of the 20th century, which saw intense rivalry between the "socialist world" (socialist states ruled by communist parties) and the "Western world" (countries with capitalist economies).
Communist parties ran the politics of much of the world from the late 1910s to the early 1990s. While communism lost much ground to neoliberalism and globalization during the 1980s and early 1990s, it is still influential in China, India, Nepal, Laos, Russia, Cuba and parts of Latin America and Central Asia.
According to Marxist theory, higher-phase communism is a specific stage of historical development that inevitably emerges from the development of the productive forces that leads to access abundance to final goods, allowing for distribution based on need and social relations based on freely associated individuals. Marxist theory holds that the lower-phase of communism, colloquially referred to as socialism, being the new society established after the overthrow of capitalism, is a transitional stage in human social evolution and will give rise to a fully communist society, in which remuneration and the division of labor are no longer present. Leninism adds to Marxism the notion of a vanguard party to lead the proletarian revolution and to secure all political power after the revolution for the working class, for the development of universal class consciousness and worker participation, in the transitional stage between capitalism and communism.
Council communists and non-Marxist libertarian communists and anarcho-communists oppose the ideas of a vanguard party and a transition stage, and advocate for the construction of full communism to begin immediately upon the abolition of capitalism. There is a very wide range of theories amongst those particular communists in regards to how to build the types of institutions that would replace the various economic engines (such as food distribution, education, and hospitals) as they exist under capitalist systems—or even whether to do so at all. Some of these communists have specific plans for the types of administrative bodies that would replace the current ones, while always qualifying that these bodies would be decentralised and worker-owned, just as they currently are within the activist movements themselves.
In the modern lexicon of what many sociologists and political commentators refer to as the "political mainstream", communism is often used to refer to the policies of communist states, i.e., the ones totally controlled by communist parties, regardless of the practical content of the actual economic system they may preside over. Examples of this include the policies of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam where the economic system incorporates "doi moi", the People's Republic of China (PRC) where the economic system incorporates "socialist market economy", and the economic system of the Soviet Union which has been described as "state capitalist". Contents
1 Etymology and terminology
^ Principals of Communism, Frederick Engels, 1847, Section 18
^ communism. CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved December 02, 2012.
^ a b Richard Pipes Communism: A History (2001) ISBN 978-0-8129-6864-4, pp. 3–5.
^ The Cambridge History of Iran Volume 3, The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Period, edited by Ehsan Yarshater, Parts 1 and 2, p1019, Cambridge University Press (1983)
^ Lansford 2007, pp
^ "Eduard Bernstein: Cromwell and Communism (1895)".
^ Eduard Bernstein, (1895). Kommunistische und demokratisch-sozialistische Strömungen während der englischen Revolution, J.H.W. Dietz, Stuttgart. OCLC 36367345 Sources available at Eduard Bernstein: Cromwell and Communism (1895) at www.marxists.org.
^ a b c "Communism." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
^ Marc Edelman, "Late Marx and the Russian road: Marx and the 'Peripheries of Capitalism '"—book reviews. Monthly Review, Dec., 1984
^ Holmes 2009, p
^ Norman Davies. "Communism" The Oxford Companion to World War II. Ed. I. C. B. Dear and M. R. D. Foot. Oxford University Press, 2001.
^ Sedov, Lev (1980). The Red Book on the Moscow Trial: Documents. New York: New Park Publications. ISBN 0-86151-015-1
^ "Kushtetuta e Republikës Popullore Socialiste të Shqipërisë : [miratuar nga Kuvendi Popullor më 28
^ a b Georgakas, Dan (1992). "The Hollywood Blacklist". Encyclopedia of the American Left. University of Illinois Press.
^ Adams, John G. (1983). Without Precedent. New York, N.Y.: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 285. ISBN 978-0-393-01616-1.
^ "Nepal 's election The Maoists triumph Economist.com". Economist.com. 2008-04-17. Archived from the original on 2011-07-29. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
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^ Stephen Whitefield
^ a b c McLean and McMillan, 2003.
^ Karl Marx; Friedrich Engels; Philip Gasper (1 October 2005). The Communist manifesto: a road map to history 's most important political document. Haymarket Books. pp. 60–63. ISBN 978-1-931859-25-7. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
^ Karl Marx, (1845). The German Ideology, Marx-Engels Institute, Moscow. ISBN 978-1-57392-258-6.
^ See Chapter 5 of Vladimir Lenin 's The State and Revolution" (1917).
^ Hill, Christopher Lenin and the Russian Revolution (1971) Penguin Books:Londonp. 86.
^ Harding, Neil (ed.) The State in Socialist Society, second edition (1984) St. Antony 's College: Oxford, p. 189.
^ Brudny, Yitzhak (1998). Re-Inventing Russia: Russian Nationalism and the Soviet State (1953–1991). ISBN 0-674-00438-8.
^ Herman Gorter, Anton Pannekoek, Sylvia Pankhurst, Otto Ruhl Non-Leninist Marxism: Writings on the Workers Councils. Red and Black, 2007.
^ Ernesto Screpanti, Libertarian communism: Marx Engels and the Political Economy of Freedom, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2007.
^ The Beginning of an Era (part1, part 2) Situationist International #12, 1969
^ Karen Elliot (2001-06-01)
^ Alan James Mayne (1999). From Politics Past to Politics Future: An Integrated Analysis of Current and Emergent Paradigms. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 316. ISBN 978-0-275-96151-0. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
^ Anarchism for Know-It-Alls. Filiquarian Publishing. 2008. ISBN 978-1-59986-218-7. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
^ a b F. A. Hayek, (1935), "The Nature and History of the Problem" and "The Present State of the Debate," om in F. A. Hayek, ed. Collectivist Economic Planning, pp. 1–40, 201–43.
^ a b Milton Friedman. We have Socialism Q.E.D., Op-Ed in New York Times December 31, 1989 On Milton Friedman, MGR & Annaism Archived 29 July 2011 at WebCite
^ Zoltan J
^ John Kenneth Galbraith, The Good Society: The Humane Agenda, (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1996), 59–60."
^ Hans-Hermann Hoppe
^ Ludwig von Mises, Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis, Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund, Inc.. 1981, trans. J. Kahane, IV.30.21
^ Alan O. Ebenstein. Friedrich Hayek: A Biography. (2003). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-18150-9 p. 137
^ Friedrich Hayek (1944)
^ Bellamy, Richard (2003). The Cambridge History of Twentieth-Century Political Thought. Cambridge University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-521-56354-3.
^ Rosefielde, Steven (2009). Red Holocaust. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-77757-5.
^ Courtois, Stéphane, ed. (1999). The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Harvard University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2.
Holmes, Leslie (2009). Communism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-955154-5.
Lansford, Tom (2007). Communism. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-7614-2628-8.
Link, Theodore (2004). Communism: A Primary Source Analysis. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-4517-7.
Rabinowitch, Alexander (2004). The Bolsheviks come to power: the Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd. Pluto Press.
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Beer, Max. The General History of Socialism and Social Struggles Volumes 1 & 2. New York, Russel and Russel, Inc. 1957
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Daniels, Robert Vincent. A Documentary History of Communism and the World: From Revolution to Collapse. University Press of New England, 1994. ISBN 978-0-87451-678-4.
Dirlik, Arif. Origins of Chinese Communism. Oxford University Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-19-505454-5
Forman, James D
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