What is a system?
is an interrelated set of components that function together an outcome.
Three Major Components:
It consists of the following elements:
collection of policies, methods, people, machines, and other elements that interact and enable the organization to achieve its goals.
collection of interrelated components that collect, process, store, and provide as output information needed to complete a business task.
Reasons for the need of Information System
growing size of the organization and the number of competitors. growing ability of computers to process large amount of data with great speed. dramatic increase in volumes of data generated.
advances in communication technologies to permit faster data transfer. increase in pace if business transactions.
much more sophisticated technology today.
Types of Information System
Transaction Processing System (TPS)
process large amount of data for routine business activities and transaction. very important for the organization since they gather all the input necessary for the other type of information system.
Management Information System (MIS)
provide a standard reports for managers about transaction data. work on the purposeful interaction between people and computers. supports a broader range of organizational tasks to include not only TPS but also decision analysis and decision making. help unite some of the computerized information function of a business. designed to take relatively raw data available through a TPS and convert them into a summarized and aggregated form for managers, usually in report format.
Decision Support System (DSS)
0. provides an interactive environment in which decision makers can quickly manipulate data and models of business operations.
Office Automation System (OAS)
support general office work for handling and managing documents and facilitating communication. aspects include word processing, spreadsheets, desktop publishing, electronic scheduling, and communication through voice mail, email, and video conferencing.
Expert System (ES)
perform a task that would otherwise be performed by a human expert. designed to take the place of human expert, while other are designed to aid them. are part of a general category of computer applications known as Artificial Intelligence (AI).
Executive Information System (EIS)
provide a generalized computing and communication environment to senior managers to support strategic decisions. designed to facilitate senior managers’ access to information quickly and effectively. rely on the information generated by MIS and allow communication with external sources of information.
General System Principles
The more specialized a system is, the less able it is to adapt to different circumstances. The more general-purpose a system is, the less optimized it is for any particular situation. But the more the system is optimized for a particular situation, the less adaptable it will be to new circumstances. The larger the system is the more of its resources that must be devoted to its everyday maintenance. Systems are always part of a larger systems, they can always be partitioned into smaller systems. Systems grow. This principle could not be true for all systems, but many of the systems with which we are familiar do grow, because we often fail to take into account when we begin to developing the system.
Players in the System Game
pay for the system to be built and operated and set the vision and priorities of the system.
who actually use the system on a regular basis to support the operation and management of the organization....
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