TABLE OF CONTENTS
EASY/DIFFICULTY IN LISTENING TASK
USE OF NON-VERBAL LANGUAGE
GUIDELINES FOR LISTENING TASK
SUGGESTIONS FOR EFFECTIVE LISTENING
ROLE OF COMMUNICATION
2. DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION
3. REASONS FOR INTERACTION WITH OTHERS
3.1. TO ESTABLISH RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER PEOPLE
3.2. TO SATISFY PERSONAL NEEDS
3.3. TO FULFIL OUR PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS
3.4. TO PERSUADE PEOPLE AND CREATE CHANGE
3.5. TO FURTHER IMPROVE AND MAINTAIN OUR SENSE OF SELF
3.6. TO MANAGE CONFLICT
4. CAUSES OF MISUNDERSTANDING/MISCOMMUNICATION
5. FACTORS AFFECTING OUR PERCEPTION OF OTHERS
5.1. EMOTIONAL STATE
5.2. HALO EFFECT
5.4. ASSUMED SIMILARITY
5.5. SELECTIVE PERCEPTION
5.6. PERCEPTUAL DEFENCE
6. COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS IN AN INTERCULTURAL SITUATION
7. NON-VERBAL MESSAGES/CUES FOR HELPING/HINDERING COMMUNICATION
11 8. FACTORS CONSIDERED FOR EFFECTIVE ORAL COMMUNICATION
Program: News On Two
Date: 1st July 2003
Time: 8.00 PM
Specific strategies used during watching and listening the News On TWO program includes: -
Preparing to listen
Being prepared also means getting into the right mental attitude – ready to maintain attention, increase awareness and elicit comprehension.
The existence of self-interest for a particular TV program would motivate the person to watch and listen enjoyably.
Keep an open mind
Being an open-minded means being aware of own prejudices, do not feel insulted or resistant to messages that contradict own beliefs, attitudes, ideas, and values. This is especially true in relation to the world news on the attack of Central Baghdad and the explosion at Fallujah.
This consists of critically analysing the news message in order to determine how truthful, authentic, or believable we judge it to be. If we fail to listen critically to the messages we receive, we risk inadvertently concurring in ideas that may violate own values.
Listen for the main news headlines
It is quite impossible to remember every single news mentioned in the program, thus, it is crucial to pay close attention to the main news headlines. This is selective attention or when we only attend certain stimuli while filtering out others.
Although taking notes would be inappropriate in relation to regional and world news but appropriate for recording football results in sport news for further references. By engaging in taking notes, we take a more active role in the listening process. 2.
Easy/Difficulty in Listening Task
Both presenters used a clear language and allowed listeners to share clear understanding of the news. However, there exist some common listening problems: -
Allowing distractions to interfere
Listeners are usually being distracted by the woman presenter’s dress, appearance and beauty.
Listening only to easy material
Giving up on boring or difficult material is the listening disorder of tuning out the presenters and their messages for fear that they will be too dull. This behaviour limits our opportunity to gain insight from what might have been an important message.
Becoming over stimulated
Listeners are too involved in the presenter’s message reaching a fed up point while the presenter is still presenting material. Thereby dismissing the rest of the message.
Some listeners fill in the gaps. That is, they mistakenly believe they know enough about the presenters subject to add what’s missing or finish the thought on their own. Listeners who indulge in mentally inserting their own information in place of the presenter’s often come away with a message that is vastly different from the one presented. 3.
Use of Non-Verbal Language
During a short break, the program also uses nonverbal communication when it presents...
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