Psy 10

Topics: Group dynamics, Decision theory, Group development Pages: 18 (2592 words) Published: June 11, 2013
sy31/05/2013

PSYCHOLOGY

GROUPS IN ORGANISATIONS

PROFESSOR GRAHAM R. STURDY

Learning Objectives
Explain why groups and teams are key contributors to organizational effectiveness. Identify the different types of groups and teams that help managers and organizations achieve their goals. Explain how different elements of group dynamics influence the functioning and effectiveness of groups and teams.

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Learning Objectives
Explain why it is important for groups and teams to have a balance of conformity and deviance and a moderate level of cohesiveness. Describe how managers can motivate group members to achieve organizational goals and reduce social loafing in groups and teams.

What is This Thing Called “Group”?
“Groups are open and complex systems that interact with the smaller systems (I.e., the members) embedded within them and the larger systems (e.g., organizations) within which they are embedded. Groups have fuzzy boundaries that both distinguish them from and connect them to their members and their embedding contexts.”

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Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness
Group
Two or more people who interact with each other to accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs.

What Are the Types of Groups?
Work groups
Task forces Crews Teams

Clubs
Economic clubs Social clubs Activity clubs

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How Do Groups Perform?

Group Productivity = Group Potential - Process Loss
Ivan Steiner

The nature of groups in organizations
 A group is a collection of two or more people

who work with one another regularly to achieve common goals.

 In a true group, members are mutually

dependent on one another and interact with one another. competition.

 Hot groups thrive in conditions of crisis and

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Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness
Team
A group whose members work intensely with each other to achieve a specific, common goal or objective. All teams are groups but not all groups are teams. Teams often are difficult to form. It takes time for members to learn how to work together.

Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness
Two characteristics distinguish teams from groups
Intensity with which team members work together Presence of a specific, overriding team goal or objective

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Groups, Teams and Organizational Effectiveness
Advantage of synergy
People working in a group are able to produce more outputs than would have been produced if each person had worked separately

Groups and Teams as Performance Enhancers
Factors that contribute to synergy
Ability of group members to bounce ideas off one another To correct one another’s mistakes To bring a diverse knowledge base to bear on a problem To accomplish work that is too vast for any one individual to achieve

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Groups and Teams as Performance Enhancers
To take advantage of the potential for synergy, managers need to make sure groups are composed of members who have complementary skills and knowledge relevant to the group’s work

Groups’ and Teams’ Contributions to Organizational Effectiveness

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Groups and Teams and Responsiveness to Customers Responsiveness to Customers Difficult to achieve given the many constraints.
Safety issues, regulations, costs.

Cross-functional teams can provide the wide variety of skills needed to meet customer demands. Teams consist of members of different departments.

Teams and Innovation
Innovation
The creative development of new products, new technologies, new services, or new organizational structures Individuals rarely possess the wide variety of skills needed for successful innovation. Team members can uncover each other’s flaws and balance each other’s strengths and weaknesses Managers should empower the team and make it accountable for the innovation process.

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Groups and...
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