QUESTION 2: BRIEFLY DESCRIBE THE PHASES IN PRODUCT DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT Product development is the process of creating a new product to be sold by a business or enterprise to its customers. Design refers to those activities involved in creating the styling, look and feel of the product, deciding on the product's mechanical architecture, selecting materials and processes, and engineering the various components necessary to make the product work. Development This is refers collectively to the entire process of identifying a market opportunity, creating a product to appeal to the identified market, and finally, testing, modifying and refining the product until it is ready for production. A product can be any item from a book, musical composition, or information service, to an engineered product such as a computer, hair dryer, or washing machine.
PRODUCT DESIGN PHASES 1. Identify Customer Needs: Through interviews with potential purchasers, focus groups, and by observing similar products in use, researchers identify customer needs. The list of needs will include hidden needs, needs that customers may not be aware of or problems they simply accept without question, as well as explicit needs, or needs that will most likely be reported by potential purchasers. Researchers develop the necessary information on which to base the performance, size, weight, service life, and other specifications of the product. Customer needs and product specifications are organized into a hierarchical list with a comparative rating value given to each need and specification. 2. Establish Target Specifications: Based on customers' needs and reviews of competitive products, the team establishes the target specifications of the prospective new product. While the process of identifying customer needs is entirely a function of marketing, designers and engineers become involved in establishing target specifications. Target specifications are essentially a wish-list tempered by known technical constraints. Later, after designers have generated preliminary products concepts, the target specifications are refined to account for technical, manufacturing and economic realities. 3. Analyze Competitive Products: An analysis of competitive products is part of the process of establishing target specifications. Other products may exhibit successful design attributes that should be emulated or improved upon in the new product. And by understanding the shortfalls of competitive products, a list of improvements can be developed that will make the new product clearly superior to those of others. In a broader sense, analyzing competitive products can help orient designers and provide a starting point for design efforts. Rather than beginning from scratch and re-inventing the wheel with each new project, traditionally, the evolution of design builds on the successes and failures of prior work. 4. Generate Product Concepts: Designers and engineers develop a number of product concepts to illustrate what types of products are both technically feasible and would best meets the requirements of the target specifications. Engineers develop preliminary concepts for the architecture of the product, and industrial designers develop renderings to show styling and layout alternatives. After narrowing the selection, non-functional appearance models are built of candidate designs. 5. Select a Product Concept: Through the process of evaluation and tradeoffs between attributes, a final concept is selected. The selection process may be confined to the team and key executives within the company, or customers may be polled for their input. Candidate appearance models are often used for additional market research; to obtain feedback from certain key customers, or as a centerpiece of focus groups. 6. Refine...
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