Outline and evaluate research into cultural variations in attachment
Due to the fact that the ways that people bring up their children can be very different all over the world as we share different attitudes, values and beliefs etc. People emphasize on developing distinct skills and qualities, so attachments formed can be different. For instance, countries like America and Germany would value personal independence and achievement more, whereas interdependence between people is valued more in China. The two cultures mentioned are called individualistic culture and collectivist culture respectively.
In Israel, child-rearing practices in kibbutzim was studied by Fox. Babies are placed into communal childcare when they are around four days old and looked after by a nurse. The nurse does the physical aspects of childcare and parents are only allowed to visit the baby about three hours a day. The child is likely to have less adult attention and much more contact with peers. The approach indicates that child-rearing shows huge differences from those we are used to.
Moreover, the varied attachments because of cultural differences can also be shown by how children and caregivers are valued. The relationship between child and specific caregiver is valued in some cultures more than others. Tronick et al(1992) suggested even though the children of the Efe people of Zambia spend up to 60 per cent of their time with women other than their mothers, the bonds they form with multiple caregivers are still as strong as those formed in Western cultures with children and single carers.
Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg carried out a meta-analysis that collates and analyses data from many studies carried out by other researchers of 32 separate studies in eight different countries over 2000 babies using Ainsworth’s ‘Strange Situation’. To find out about attachments types in different cultures. Participants were then classified into three groups. Generally, Type B (secure...
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