Abstract Number 1 :
Organizations as political systems: the managerial bias in Critical Perspective A number of approaches are offered for organizational science to solve the problem regarding organizational gap between theory and practice. The rational model can be considered as a dominant model on organizational science among the others with the purpose of defining organization as instruments for attaining goals instead of dealing with problems .Furthermore, objectives are defined in favour of organization progress regardless of employees’ ideas in such a model. It is mainly assumed that involved individuals in the organisation’s activities agree reasonably with its major purposes. The main task of managers are described as of replacing irrationality with technically rational actions. Therefore, an incomplete picture organizational reality is shown. As a result, political model as one of the derivations of rational model could be used to widen the scope of social and political criteria and also overcome the rational model’s restricted normative focus . Model proposes a concept called power within the intention to basic centralised system decrease with organisation development. At the present time, the large size ones that differentiated by complexity and also decentralisation control the land scape. In some organization that the form of multiple hierarchies are taken as a results of a number of reasons, the political activities of interest groups and bargaining coalitions can be more clear than the normal one. The same purposes and also forming by individuals are the main features of interest group. As an important part, they should be considered is political reactions to different limitations established by organizational structures. The high competition among interest groups within the organization can be seen that cause low productivity.
Working as an internship in a bank which the positions were as following: Main manager, Assistant Manager , and a number of team members. There were no differences in following the rules among all team members. However, all the team members were under supervision of managers. Furthermore, different techniques are used in order to enhance the company positive results .It could be achieved by holding group meeting and also consider prises for the best workers. Afterward, kind of competition could be seen among all team members to stand among top team members in order to get better position and also considered rewards. A number of reactions were seen from employees whom were divided into different groups and also their reaction in their break time about the others.. In my opinion, such a control of team members could be a sample in this regard.
Theories of risk perception: who fears what and why?
When it comes to social science, a number of theories regarding risk perception explanation are known. For instance knowledge theory, personality theory, economic theory, political theory and cultural theory are the main examples in this regard. However, such competitive theories not often confront with others in answering similar questions. Different types of viewpoints are selected regarding public understanding of risk. There are a number of available ways to asses the tendency of people to be risk taking or not. In addition, their definition and understanding of hazards could be considered as another way in this regard There are couple of theories which are defined in order to understand risk. For instance, knowledge theory which is directly related to people information about particular objects which can be also dangerous. Another method concerning risk perception is personality theory that is described based on people characteristics related to risk taking or not. Furthermore, political theory and economic theory are considered as public response to dangers. In the view of cultural theorists intention to different types of...
References: 1. Fischer, F. 1990, Organizations as Political Systems, The Managerial Bias in Critical Perspective, Sage, Newbury Park, CA.
2. Wildavsky, A., and Dake, K. (1990), ‘Theories of risk perception: who fears what and why?’, Daedalus.
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