MAO EVALUATION – 1920s-1949: RESISTER?
METHODS OF RESISTANCE
Land based – peasants didn't own land – worked (exploited?) land for landlords Peasants heavily taxed – if you couldn't pay tax you could be imprisoned – you could be beaten, sold into slavery etc Peasants starve – massive famines frequent
Cities – massive inequality – between business/factory owners and their workers National Party policies supported business owners and middle class at the expense of the peasants.
Maoism until 1949 is able to be applied to the areas that the communists control
Communists are able to gain increasing control - massive support to their economic philosophies POLITICAL:
When Mao was leading the Autumn Harvest Uprising in Hunan, the KMT (Kuomintang) sent more than 1 million soldiers against him •
1931-34 Mao establishes the Soviet Republic of China in the mountains of Jiangxi. Red Terror occurs where communists torture and murder thousands of local people. •
1932: Red Guard have 45 000 which will be used in the future for oppression during the Cultural Revolution •
October 16, 1934 - October 19, 1935 - The Long March, communist escape 8 000 miles to the north and west •
Mao advocates "harsher measures" against non-cooperative peasants. (1941) •
1942: Mao launches "Rectification of Conduct" Campaign to purge other CPC leaders •
Jan 21, 1949: KMT suffer huge loss against Mao's Red Guards. •
Mass executions landlords and other rightists, more than 1 million likely killed. •
Dec 10, 1949: Communists take Chiangdu which was last KMT stronghold. Chiang Kai Shek flees to Taiwan.
1927 was a cataclysmic year for everyone involved in the Chinese Revolution. Mao and his communist cohorts were involved in the uprisings in southern China. •
1937 - Mao published "On Contradiction" and "On Practice", revolutionary tracts
Survival and success of the CCP
Attracted followers and stimulated support through the creation of propaganda -
Established new base in Yanan
Created a mythical/heroic image of Communism – survivors, triumphed through great hardship and suffering like peasants and workers •
Deaths of tens of thousands
1931 – Japan annexed Manchuria and spread influence into northern China •
The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – September 2, 1945). When Japan invaded China the GMD and CCP parties made a truce to join together to repel the Japanese forces. •
Defeating the Japanese became a main priority of Mao's party.
The two armies (the Red Guards of the CCP and the Chiang Kaishek's army) fought the Japanese on two different fronts, operating in different ways. •
Mao's army used effective guerrilla warfare against the Japanese and managed to form anti-Japanese associations of peasants, students, merchants, women and children. •
Laid mines, booby traps and organised raids and acts of sabotage
Ultimately it was the Soviet Union and United states who put an end to the Sino-Japanese war but Mao's forces were integral at deterring and destroying the Japanese invaders. •
Successful for Mao and CCP – defeat of Japanese gained them wide spread peasant support (needed for revolution) •
Positioned Mao well against Guomindang (who ignored Japanese threat)
MAO EVALUATION – 1949-1976: LIBERATOR OR OPPRESSOR?
LIBERATION OR OPPRESSION ECONOMIC:
Agricultural producers’ co-operatives (APCs) set up on a small scale in 1955 – unsuccessful -
Mao argued the APC’s had not been implemented quickly and comprehensively enough – launched the Great Leap Forward in September 1957 -
Designed to surpass Britain’s industrial production (in 15 years) and increase agricultural production -
Communities organised into communes and pressured to produce food -
Overestimating production – resulted in widespread famine, drought and rise in insects (sparrows had been shot in the purging of the...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document