microsoft office 2010 product key

Topics: Memory, Information processing, Knowledge Pages: 13 (2046 words) Published: September 26, 2013
Chapter 4
Learning and Remembering Effectively



Information Processing Model
Principles of Memory

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Understand the flow of information through the information processing model. 2. Explain how the three memory systems work to process information. 3. Understand the various techniques to access information from memory. 4. Identify the 12 Principles of Memory.

5. Explain how to use the 12 Principles of Memory.

Information Processing Model
• Metacognition is the process of understanding how you learn, what you need to learn, and which strategies or techniques would be the most effective or the best matched to the learning task.
• Understanding the Information Processing Model is the first step in learning to use the powerful process of metacognition.
• The Information Processing Model shows how our mind processes information and how our memory works.
• The Information Processing Model has three memory centers: sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory. Each performs specific functions. • The diagram below shows the Information Processing Model.

Sensory Input
Refers to all the sensory stimuli from the physical world that we receive through our five senses –
Sensory Memory
Is the temporary storage center that receives and holds sensory input for one or two seconds before beginning to encode the information for further processing. Information that you do not attend to fades or becomes discarded quickly. Codes and Encoding

Once information is received from your senses, your brain begins to prepare the information for your memory systems by encoding the information. Encoding is the process of attaching codes to stimuli so your long-term memory can accept, understand, use and store the sensory information.

Linguistic, visual, motor and semantic codes are four common codes that may be used to prepare sensory information for processing.
Selective Attention
Is the process of focusing on or attending to specific sensory input that is important to process further and ignoring information considered not important. For example, if you are in a room filled with talking people, you cannot focus on all the conversations. Instead you focus your selective attention on a specific conversation.

Working Memory
Working memory refers to all cognitive processes that occur in our conscious mind. Anything that you are aware of doing or thinking occurs in the working memory. The working memory has two parts: short-term memory and the central executive. Short-Term Memory (STM)

STM is a temporary storage center in the working memory that receives and holds selected sensory memory for further processing. Any information that is not give attention will be discarded. Therefore, to keep new information active and move it farther into the memory for processing, we need to consciously work with the information.

Limitations of STM:
• STM is limited in duration – 30 seconds limit.
• STM is limited in capacity

The Central Executive
Is the part of working memory that manages and coordinates the cognitive functions and the flow of information throughout the processing system. Its functions include:
• Receiving, organizing and coordinating the flow of information throughout the memory system.
• Integrates data from the sensory memory and long-term memory. • Initiates and controls actions, behaviour and decision-making.

How to Prevent Overload in Working Memory
• Monitor the speed new information is taken in.
• Work with 3 to 5 chunks of information at a time.
• Break larger pieces of information into smaller units and focus on one unit at a time.
• Free up working memory by ignoring intrusive thoughts.

Long-Term Memory (LTM)
Is a permanent storage center that holds chunks of information received from the working memory. Long-term memory is a storage center and we will become aware of long-term memory only when our working memory...
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