Marxism and Sociology
Marxist theory on sociology is primary based on the work of Karl Marx (1818-1883). His ideas seem to be equally important in the field of economics and political science. Several neo-Marxist theorists like Louis Althusser (1918-1990), Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937) et al have contributed in taking Marxist theory on sociology further. Marx lived in an age when entire Europe was still recovering from cultural shock of prior revolutions (French revolution and others). Moreover at that period entire Europe was going through Industrial Revolution, where change in technique of production was taking place- small scale domestic production gave way to large scale mass production (this had profound social and cultural effect too). This very change: culturally and economically resulted in a new economic system- capitalism, which was of great importance to Marx (not exactly positively), and his entire theory of Marxism is based on the discussion of these changes. Marx particularly talks about revolting against these changes and establishing new economic system- communism which will be primarily based on the principle of “equality”. Marxism theory generally is detailed analysis and interpretation of capitalist society in terms of its current functioning, its present structure and its necessary evolution. Here inequalities of the capitalist society where bourgeoisie gains in expense of proletariat is heavily critiqued. Capitalism, in so far as it is based on the private ownership of the means of production, is also based on the pursuit of profit by entrepreneurs or producers. For Marx, the analysis of capitalist economy was the analysis of individuals losing control over their own existence in a system subject to autonomous laws. Capitalism for Marx was a system of social relations and believed that neither money nor commodities alone were sufficient to make capitalism. For a society to be capitalistic, money and commodities had to be...
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