SEMANA, RENELY G.
MGT 4 – Assignment
The following theories have been presented in class. Briefly discuss each philosophy and give your own take on its applicability in the Filipino culture, especially in the business setting. (5 pts each) Utilitarianism
Jeremy Benthams philosophy states that, “Do whatever produces the greatest good for the greatest number.” While John Stuart Mill philosophy states that what is pleasurable is good, and what is painful is bad; what causes pleasure is moral, what causes pain is immoral.” Though ,theory is quiet impressive, this approach to achieving happiness was focusing on the influence of pleasure and pain and the negative and positive associations created through praise and punishment. This deals more on the positive and negative aspect in the view of what is socially good or bad. Well, to us Filipinos, it is usually part of our culture that we tend to sacrifice or let go of something we have so that more will be happy or benefited by it. But not all the time that whatever the mass demands, it is right and should be done. One of the things I have observed is the Demolition in the squatter’s area for the fulfillment of a useful project. On the point of view of these affected families, it is pleasurable and moral that they will not be demolished which they seen as good. It is painful and immoral in their view that their homes will be demolished. On the other hand, the government chose to impose demolition for a project because they also see it as beneficial in the community. There are also a number of problems with utilitarianism. One problem with utilitarianism is that it leads to an "end justifies the means" mentality. Second, utilitarianism cannot protect the rights of minorities if the goal is the greatest good for the greatest number and third problem with utilitarianism is predicting the consequences. I see this problem applicable in business aspect. For example, the country undergoes recession, for a company to survive, to save the interest of shareholders, creditors and other investors, the company decided to diminish a big amount of employees. This is for the thought to lessen the expenses paid for them. The end of the rejected employees does not determine that they are not performing well or they deserve that decision. Since the company thinks for a greater number of people, it neglects the rights and situation of the rejected employees. Lastly, the company may expect that it will lessen the expenses but it can also end up spending more because of avoidable and fixed cost that should have been minimized. To sum up my point of view about utilitarianism, there is a part in our minds that thinks with utilitarianism but we can’t always follow everything that it stated for there are always things to consider. Pain and pleasure are things that should not always be avoided or seek for. We need pain as a part of growing and learning. We should also delay pleasure for greater reasons. Majority and minority should meet halfway to serve both without neglecting the other. Ethical Egoism
Ethical egoism is the prescriptive doctrine that all persons ought to act from their own self-interest. Ethical egoism, simply put, dictates that one must do whatever is necessary to maximize one's long-term self interest. But it should also remember that ethical egoism does not say that you should avoid actions that help others because it could be that by helping others you help yourself (ex. You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours). These interests of others and by helping yourself you inadvertently help others. I can see that this philosophy suggests that directly or indirectly, we are acting for our own benefit. This is in contradiction with what we called Altruism which is Concern for others, other-centeredness, interest in the well-being of others or unselfishness. In my opinion, We cannot generalize people whether they are selfish or selfless. People act for many...
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