Kimberly MIller SLS 3130 5 Principles And Applications Of Adult Learning 5 Week 9 Individual Work

Topics: Knowledge, Psychology, Educational psychology Pages: 19 (1408 words) Published: March 21, 2015
New Perspectives on
Andragogy

By: Kimberly Miller
Principles and Application of Adult Learning-5
Week 9- Individual Work

1. LEARNERS NEED TO KNOW


The primary core principle for adult learners is their need to know “ why” before they begin engaging in the learning
process and they should be engaged in the planning of their
learning.

• When adults engage in the planning of their learning helps to stratify their need to know and also appeals to their self – concept as a independent learner.
• “Training researchers that have conducted research related to this premise that suggest three dimensions of the need to know: the need to know how learning will be conducted,
what learning will occur, and why learning is important.”
(Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2012)

2-A. Self t Directed
Learning

“’Self-directed learning’ describes a process by which individuals take the initiative, with our without the assistance of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating
learning goals, identify human and material resources for
learning, choosing and implement appropriate learning
strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes.”
(M. Knowles, Principles of Andragogy, 1972)“


The two concepts of Self-Directed Learning:
1.

2.

Self-Directed Learning is seen a the self-teaching process
where the learners are very capable of taking full control
of the mechanisms and techniques of teaching
themselves in specific subjects.
Self-Directed Learning is seen as personal autonomy
(taking control of the goals and purpose of learning and
assuming the ownership of learning) which, Candy
(1991), calls this process autodidaxy.

2-B. SELF-DIRECTED
LEARNING
G
Grow (1991), believed that self-directed learning “is
situational and that the teacher’s job is to match styles with the student.
Grow conducted 4 stages and corresponding teaching styles. The “reasons that the learner is to be in a particular stage can often be related to their self-teachings skills , personal
autonomy, or both.” (Knowles, Holton, Swanson, 2012)

2-C. Self-Directed Learning
Grow’s Stages in Learning
Autonomy
Stage Student Teacher Examples

Stage
1:
Stage
2:
Stage
3:

Dependent

Authority
Coach

Coach
Teacher

Interested

Motivator
Guide

Teacher
Guide.

Involved

Facilitator

Facilitator
Teacher

3-A. Prior Experiences of the Learner

 There are “three stream of the closely related
cognitive psychological research: (schema
theory, information process, and memory
research).” (Jonassen and Grabowski, 1993)


Schema: This is the cognitive structures of data
that are built via the learning and experiences that
are stored and packaged in one’s memory.



Information Process: This is the prior knowledge
that is a filter to the learning through the
attentional processes. This means that learners will
pay more attention to the learning when it fits their
prior knowledge.



Memory Research: This when the memory is split

3-B. PRIOR EXPERIENCES OF THE LEARNER

Three Models of Learning in relation to
Schema:
 Acceleration: This is mainly acquired within
the learning of facts and includes very little
change to schema.
 Turning: This is involving slow and
incremental changes to an individuals
personal schema.
The
 Restructuring:
This
the creations of
Mental Model
of involves
Learning:
 “Senge
new schema’s
this the
is the
hardest
(1990),and
defines
mental
mode as a
learningheld
model
for most
adults.
“deeply
internal
images
of how the world
works, images that limit us to familiar ways of

4-A. Readiness to Learn

The readiness to learn theory is for when adults become
ready to learn through their life situations that are
creating the need to know. “Pratt (1988), came up with a
model to on how the life situations of adults will not only
effect their readiness to learn but also their readiness for the andragogical- type...

References: E.(2011).
(2011).The
Theadult
S.(2014)
(2014)The
y)
Regis University; (2013): The Klob Model; Regis
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