ASSESSING TRANSPORTATION AND ROAD CONDITIONS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA USING GEOINFORMATICS, WITH FOCUS ON IMPACT OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND CHANGE.
Dr. Onuigbo, Ifeanyi C.
Department of Surveying and Geo-informatics
Federal University of Technology, Minna
Phone: (234) 8035968702, E-mail: email@example.com
DataNET Consults Ltd, Minna
Phone: (234) 8068166939, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The importance of transportation was established in the study. Also the impacts of climate change on transportation were highlighted. Transportation itself was found to be contributing to climate change through the emissions of Carbon from vehicles. Road transport sector is a significant and growing contributor to green house emissions which scientists have linked to be the major cause of global warming. Road deterioration database was generated in the study. Multimedia road deterioration database was developed. Modelling of the environmental factors affecting roads was done, and multiple regression equations were developed. The analysis showed the effects of the environmental factors on roads. It was found that environmental and climatic factors contribute to road deterioration. Recommendations were made on how to monitor road conditions and improve on road transportation in the study area. Key Words: Geoinformatics, Climate Change, Global Warming, Transportation, Database
1.1 Transportation in General
Transportation is linked to all aspects of life; leisure, business, education, and industry - all depend on transportation. All over the world, transportation has impacted the environment immensely by dictating how people and goods move and the trend of socio-economic development. The demand for transportation has been shown to directly be related to growth in population and incomes globally. For example, in the past decade, average per capita income increased by 26% whereas world population increase was 20% which translated into an increase in passenger and freight demand.
Urban areas and cities have attracted a growing number of problems that can drain their economic and social vitality, many of them transport related, like congestion, and road traffic crashes, CO2 emissions, poor air quality and sprawl, pollution etc. It has been forecasted that because of the strong population and income growth in the developing countries, there will be an equal rise in transport demand especially road transportation on an average of 1.8% per annum between 2003 and 2050. For transportation professionals, the increase in demand for transportation represents a major challenge at a time when society is beginning to acknowledge and come to terms with the global impact of Climate Change.
1.2 Road Transportation
Transportation in general and Road transportation in particular, is a key driver of the economy. It supports economic development and growth and facilitates exchange among countries. In Nigeria, for example, the transport sector contributed about 2.4% to real GDP in 2004, and road transportation alone accounted for nearly 86% of the total output. However, the transport sector (especially Road) is a significant and growing contributor to green house gas emission which scientist have linked to be the major source of global warming .Scientific evidence has clearly linked global warming with the increasing emission of greenhouse gases, with much of the increase in developed countries coming from transport. In its fourth assessment report, the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that ‘most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid- 20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentration’ (IPCC, 2007). The language “very likely” has been upgraded from the “likely” that was referred to six years earlier in the broad acceptance by scientists of the link between...
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