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Topics: Climate change, Climate, Earth Pages: 18 (4364 words) Published: February 1, 2015

Climatic Changes across the Globe

– An extensive research paper

Anshika Jain
B.arch – 3rd Semester
Section B
Table of Contents
1. What is Climatology?
1.1 Elements of Climatology

2. History of Climatology

3. Causes of Climatic Change
3.1 Internal Forcing Mechanisms
3.1.1 Life
3.2 External Forcing Mechanisms
3.2.1 Orbit Variations
3.2.2 Solar Output
3.2.3 Volcanism
3.2.4 Human Influences

4. Indicators of a Human Fingerprint in Climatic Changes

5. Physical Evidences
5.1 Temperature measurements and proxies
5.2 Historical and Archaeological Evidences
5.3 Glaciers
5.4 Vegetation
5.5 Pollen Analysis
5.6 Dendroclimatology
5.7 Ice cores
5.8 Animals
5.9 Sea Level Change

6. An Inconvenient Truth – Synopsis

7. Ecological Footprints
7.1 Overview
7.2 Methodology
7.3 Footprints by Country

8. Sustainable Architecture
8.1 Sustainable Energy Use
8.2 Sustainable Building Material
8.3 Waste Management
8.4 Sustainable Building Consulting

9. References

10. Figure References
Climate change is a long-term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over various periods of time. It may be a change in the average weather conditions or a change in the distribution of weather events with respect to an average. Such changes may be limited to a specific region, or may occur across the ENTIRE PLANET. [1] Presently, these changes are taking place along the length and breadth of the globe and therefore we shall talk about each issue GLOBALLY.


In order to understand CLIMATOLOGY, it is important to distinguish between WEATHER and CLIMATE.

WEATHER is the general condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and place with respect to the temperature, cloud cover, air pressure and so on. [2] Whereas CLIMATE is an accumulation of weather events over an extended period of time. [3]

Coming back to CLIMATOLOGY, it is the study of weather and its changes over long periods of time. [4]

The normal period of climatology is 30 years and its elements include:- Air temperature
Air pressure
Relative Humidity
Cloud cover [5]

According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), there are 7 indicators that would portray increase in a warming world and that would portray a decrease. They are as follows [6]:-

Figure 1 – Indicators of increase/decrease in a warming world

2. History of Climate Change

Climate change began in the early 19th century when ice ages in paleo climate [7]were first suspected and the greenhouse effect [8]first identified.

In the late 19th century, scientists argued that human emissions of greenhouse gases could change the climate. Many other theories of climate change were advanced, involving forces from volcanism [9] to solar variation [10].

In the 1960s, the warming effect of carbon dioxide gas became increasingly convincing.

By the 1990s, as a result of improved computer models and observational work confirming the Milankovitch theory[11] of the ice ages, it became clear that greenhouse gases were deeply involved in most climate changes, and human emissions were bringing serious global warming.

Since the 1990s, scientific research on climate change has included multiple disciplines and has expanded.

The most recent work has been summarized in the Assessment Reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [12].

3. Causes of Climatic Change

Usually, the RATE at which ENERGY is RECIEVED from the SUN and the rate at which it is LOST to SPACE determine the EQUILIBRIUM temperature and climate of the Earth. This energy is distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents, and other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions. Factors that can shape climate are called ‘FORCING MECHANISMS’. [13]These include processes such as variations in solar radiation [14] , variations in the Earth's orbit,...
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