Persuasive Essay (50 point value)
18 Jan 2014
French Revolution on Europe
Lasting Effects of the French Revolution on Europe
A. The lasting effects of the French revolution in Europe after the age of Napoleon was to have a profound change on four major areas that affect the way the rest of the 19th century was to be shaped from here on. The four areas are:
1. Religion Climate with regards to the Jews throughout Europe .
2. Political Climate changes.
3. The changes in the conditions of the lower and middle class.
4. Widespread changes in the actual landscape of Europe.
B. Thesis Statement: The changes brought about after the French revolution constituted a profound change in the political, social, and religious landscape of 19th Europe.
I. In the nineteenth century, the term assimilation was used, which implies a much more radical adjustment, even to the point of absorption. Jews were supposed to give up their national culture in order to become culturally German or French. Some supporters of assimilation assumed that the Jewish minority would eventually even accept Christianity and finally vanish.
i. This term assimilation describes more accurately what really happened in Western as well as to a lesser degree in Eastern European societies. In contrast to this, acculturation is a less radical and more academic term which implies that people accept a new culture or part of it, but do not give up completely their own traditions.
ii. The discrimination of the Jews increased during the nineteenth century because the Tsarist government regarded the Jews to be a potentially revolutionary element. According to Professor Monike Richarz "In 1887, a quota system for Jewish students was introduced, which caused many Russian Jews to study in Germany, Austria or Switzerland. Generally speaking, one may say that acceptance depended on the impact anti-Semitism had on a society". (Richarz)
iii. Anti-Semitism existed more or less in all of the nineteenth century. While this action was happening with the Jewish population another curious thing was happening with the political systems as well. II. Political Climate changes started almost immediate after the defeat of Napoleon after the Battle of Waterloo it was the fall of the French empire and the end of the revolution. Some countries started to go back to the old ways of the Absolute Monarchies, but other people and countries had other ideas, it seemed the seeds of revolutionary ideas had caught on. i. In 1823, Austria, Russia and Prussia authorized French troops to enter Spain to re-establish conservatism there. Louis XVIII, sent an army of 100,000 into Spain and put Ferdinand VII back on his throne. Britain was concerned because it was benefiting from the independence movement in Latin America, and Britain hinted that war would follow if France invaded Portugal or became involved in Latin America.
ii. In Russia, the old problem of succession reappeared. Officers who had been with the Russian forces occupying France had been exposed to the Enlightenment, and they hated what they had found when returning to Russia: corruption, censorship, rigid control over higher education and serfdom. They disliked the military's resort to gross brutality in attempting to instill military discipline among soldiers.
iii. In France, the restored monarchy of Louis XVIII had preserved some of what had been won during the French Revolution, namely a constitution that provided for a parliament a parliament composed of an elected Chamber of Deputies and a Chamber of Peers.
III. The Changes in the conditions of the lower and middle class followed.
i. France started the ball rolling by making changes to censorship which was abolished and trial by jury guaranteed. The middleclass was still afraid of the lower classes, and parliament and...
Cited: Marx, Karl. The Communist Manifesto. Harmondsworth Eng: Penguin Books, 1982.
in-the-19th-Century, web 17 Jan 2014
Richarz, Monika. The History of the Jews in Europe during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, Web. 17 Jan 2014.
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