under the branch of philosophy
which means the study
morality of human acts.
that which renders action right
the quality of human acts by
which they are constituted as
good, bad, or indifferent.
-they are good actions and are permissible.
-they are bad or evil and are not permissible.
- they are neither good nor bad in themselves.
(But certain amoral actions may become good or bad
because of the circumstances attendant to them).
are those actions performed by
man, knowingly and freely. They
are also called voluntary and
Human acts reveal the thoughts
and inclination of the person
Virtuous- a person who has a habit
or inclination to do good.
Vicious- one who has a habit of
Importance of Ethics
Requirement for human life
A means of deciding a course of
Without it, our actions would be
“Morality and religion are the two
indispensable pillars to human
prosperity and happiness.”
“ the unexamined life is not worth
living for man- the investigation of
the meaning of life.”
calls Ethics the supreme
science that deals with the
Summum Bonum- the supreme
purpose of human living.
those actions which man performs
knowingly, freely, and voluntarily.
Acts of man
those actions that are instinctive and
are not within the control of the will.
examples: respiration, fear, anger, love
It must be performed by a conscious
agent who is aware of what he is
doing and of its consequences.
Children below the age of reason, the
insane, the senile- are considered
incapable of acting knowingly.
It must be informed by an agent who
is acting freely, that is, by his own
volition and powers.
It must be performed by an agent
who decides willfully to perform the
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Evil
implies a quality
inherent in a thing. Thus,
intrinsic evil is an act which is
evil by its nature that is , by
functional purpose, is wrongful.
robbery, rape lies, and slavery.
Extrinsic implies a quality which is
superficially added to a thing. Thus,
an extrinsic evil is an act which in
itself is not evil but is made evil
nonetheless on account something
Example: drinking liquor is extrinsically
evil when done in excess.
Imputability of Human Acts
A human act is done by a person who is in
control of his faculties: intellect and will. In
this sense, a person like the captain of a
ship who assumes full responsibility and
accountability for his decisions.
The imputability of a human act means that
the person performing the act is liable for
such an act.
It involves the notion of guilt or innocence.
Sanctions and Penalties
Imputability implies that the doer is either
deserving of reward or punishment. This
is a basic requirement of justice.
The penal laws of our country provide for a
system of punishment for crimes, ranging
from simple fines to imprisonment. The
capital punishment, that is, death penalty
, is reserved for “heinous crimes”.
The Bible, however, speaks of
death as the punishment for
Testament interpret this as
death by execution, it refers
more to the spiritual death
A form of spiritual death is the loss of peace
of mind, the only genuine happiness
possible in this life.
Indeed, many of the human sufferings we
see and experience are the direct results of
immoral situations. For example, an
immoral person risks losing his honor, his
job, and his family. He also runs the risk of
being ostracized (ignored). On the other
hand, the world looks up to a man of
integrity. Peace, contentment, and honor
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