Environmental Causes of Human Migration
Student: Nigay Oleg.
Batch: BMCDP 1330A (M55).
Human migration is movement of population related to the change of residence. This is a complex social process which serves an important function in society. There are different reasons for migration. One reason for the migration of the population is ecological. Environmental degradation is a serious deterioration of ecological conditions. Vast areas are virtually uninhabitable, so people are forced to leave these regions. Migration of this type are called environmental migrants. There are two types for environmental influences on human migration. One of them is fast and another one is slow (Gray and Bilsborrow, 2013). The fast one is a quick change of the environment such as natural disaster (e.g. earthquake, tornado or flood). For example, considering the effects of hurricane "Katrina", which claimed the lives of more than a thousand in 2005, it should be noted that more than 800,000 people were left without electricity and telephone services, and one and a half million people have fled their homes. Many left the city forever. This can also be man-made catastrophe, which does not cause long-term changes in the environment of serious ecological habitat. The slow one, in contrast, is a specification of environment like land quality and long-term climate norms. The best example is the deterioration of the ecological situation in the Aral Sea region due to the thoughtless melioration policy in the region, carried out during the Soviet era. Another indicator of land quality could be in connection with recent technological disasters cause long-term radiological, chemical or bacteriological contamination of areas. The most significant examples of this are accident on the fourth unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the tragedy in the Indian 1
city of Bhopal, which occurred two years before Chernobyl, when pesticide plant leaked about 40 tons of highly toxic gas - methyl isocyanate. More than 500 people died immediately from the direct effects of gas, about 6,000 people were serious chemical injury, including 2 thousand people died in the next few weeks. The number of deaths over the next 20 years varies according to various estimates, from 14 to 20 thousand people In addition, in recent years, the literature has become referred climatic migration related to the general warming of the planet. Such confirmation can be the fact that more than 75 thousand people in Western Europe were killed by high temperatures in 2003. Despite the fact that ecological migration has deep historical roots, as a social phenomenon it relatively recently become a subject of study by representatives of various sciences, including lawyers, and thus insufficiently explored in the world. Therefore, there is still no sound public policy assistance to environmental migrants. This category of migrants in the international instruments mentioned in passing, accepted notions of environmental migration is not developed in international law. Perhaps that is the reason why they are in no hurry to leave the environmentally disadvantaged areas. At the new place they do not expect any security in housing or work. Jin (2009) states that “the conditions of pastoralists' household economies under the "ecological and environmental migration policy" was reflected by the simulation and the analysis so the structure of income and the expenditures of pastoralists after migration were
clarified, and a case study simulation of "not emigrating" was carried out. About 50-60% of 37 households succeeded in changing the mode of production and improving their living conditions. On the other hand, about 40-50% of the households could not smoothly change the mode of production. Actually, most of them did not receive sufficient subsidies, so their living conditions worsened, especially for households with sick or elderly people.” The paper...
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