From 1970 to 1990, Eastern European nations realized they needed a change in their governments as well as economies. Politically, reformers and dissidents wanted to end party-state dictatorships and move towards a pluralist democracy. Economically, centrally planned economies were unsuccessful due to increased bureaucracy, excessive centralization, and debt obligation. Velvet revolutions in Eastern Europe changed countries towards market-oriented economies and pluralist democracies.
Countries of the Eastern European bloc had a similar goal in the 1970s and 1980s: to end party-state dictatorships. Under party-state dictatorships, one political party dominated the government and citizens had little participation in the government. Reformers and dissidents wanted opposition parties and multiparty elections. Eastern Europe's repressive governments suppressed any anti-Communist rebellions and criticisms of the government. In 1985, Soviet Union President Mikhail Gorbachev introduced his reform of glasnost, or openness. This allowed citizens of Eastern Europe to voice their opinions on the party and government.
Eastern Europe suffered from many economic problems. Many countries owed debt to Western nations. Central planned economies were inefficient and slowed economic growth. New industries could not be formed due to lack of capital. Productivity halted under bureaucratic control. Many reformers wanted more competition between industries and incentives for workers. Gorbachev introduced his reform of perestroika, or economic liberalization, in 1985, but reformers still were not happy.
Citizens of Eastern Europe responded to economic and political problems by acting against the Communist dictatorships. In Poland, an independent trade union was formed, named Solidarity. Solidarity and its leader, Lech Walesa, demanded free elections and a role in government. In 1989, Solidarity won in an open election and Communist rule ended in...
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