How do we know that Climate Change exists and what causes it?
Climate change as many know it, has been a big issue around the world. There are anthropogenic and natural causes which are responsible for this cause but individually they contribute a small amount but are a huge factor as a whole. One of the main problems about the climate change is global warming. What is global warming? It is the increase in the mean temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere. It is said that the temperature has been rising by 0.5° every year and the highest temperature recorded was 47.6° in Faya, Chad in 22nd June 2010. This causes the sea levels to rise due to the snow melting. It is said that the sea levels will rise by at least 25 meters by the year 2100. The sea surface temperature has risen in the last few years. This means there will be more evaporation taking place and this frees several chemicals which help global warming take place. Graph showing the number of storms per year during the years The number of storms increases every year.
The areal extent of sea ice is decreasing
Graph showing the areal extent of sea ice during the years
Ocean Heat Content
Temperature Over Oceans
Sea Surface Temperature
Temperature Over Land
Air Temperature near Surface (Troposphere)
TEN INDICATORS OF A GLOBAL WARMING WORLD
How do we know global warming exists? Well, the glaciers and icebergs have been melting due to the high temperatures. Weather balloon measurements were taken from the years 1975 to 2005 and they say that the temperature has been rising by 0.23°C. Eleven of the twelve years (1995 to 2006) were ranked among the 12 warmest years in record of the global surface temperature the frequency of hurricanes also has increased due to this. Sea surface temperatures and ocean temperatures are showing long-term warming trends. This can be proved by drilling a hole in the ice and analysing the air bubbles because the deeper down the layer of ice is, the older it is. Also isotopes of O2 can give evidence of the temperature and since this varies every time, it is possible to find the time that particular bubble was present. The Global average sea level rose at a mean rate of 1.8mm every year during the years 1961 to 2003 but however the rate was faster during the years 1993 to 2003 where it was approximately 3.1mm every year. This was due to the ice melting from the Arctic and it is said that the average Arctic temperatures have increased at almost twice the global mean rate in the past century. This all is a sign showing global warming has an impact on our world.
The temperature has been increasing over these years.
Graph showing the global surface temperature from 1500 to 2000
Graph showing the sea surface temperature from about 1975 to 2005
Decrease in temperature
Rapid increase in temperature
Increase in temperature
Graph showing the world temperature from 1880 to 2000
The main reason (as many people believe) behind climate change this is the greenhouse effect but however we, humans are not the ones completely responsible for this. What is the greenhouse effect? It is the natural process that the gasses in the atmosphere trap heat from the sun. More specifically this prevents the escape of heat which would have been lost in the atmosphere. These gasses act rather like as if they were in a greenhouse and this is how the name originated from. The more amounts the gas has, the warmer the Earth becomes. Co2 Concentrations (and Methane concentrations)
Rate of CO2 concentration increases rapidly
Rapid increase in concentration
This part (rapid increasing rate) is common in all graphs and follows the trend of the radiative forcing. RED LINE = CO2 concentrations
BLUE LINE = Temperature/ F
Another major cause for climate change is the use of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas). This increases the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. There is...
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