According to Holden (2002), participative competency is an ability to be involved in and be a part
of interaction – even in a nonnative language. Along the same line, Fantini (2000) includes the
ability to communicate effectively and appropriately without changing the significance of the
message as a cross-cultural competency. Koehn and Rosenau‘s (2002) transnational listening
requires that native speakers understand non-native speakers, even when they do not use the
language in a correct manner. Sercu (2004) believes that the ability to find new things and to
interact and to acquire and manage information, skills and attitudes in real-time communications is
a central cross-cultural competency.
Holden‘s (2002) interactive translation, namely the ability to negotiate the meanings can be
compared to Friedman & Antal‘s (2005) negotiating reality. Negotiating reality is a strategy, which
tries to bring to light tacit knowledge and hypotheses. Nonaka (1994) describes that acquisition of
tacit knowledge includes observation, imitation and training. Friedman and Antal‘s cross-cultural
competency includes the ability to examine silent assumptions and the openness to test a range of
thoughts and practices.
The ability to operate in networks, collaborative cross-cultural learning and knowledge transfer are
closely linked. As Holden (2002) sees the ability to operate in networks as a core cross-cultural
competency, Koehn and Rosenau (2002) similarly refer to people acting in networks. They
associate networks with knowledge sharing, in which participants are givers and recipients.
Networks are critically important for the success of international business operations. According to
Koehn and Rosenau (2002), people build networks in the expectation of mutual learning. At the
individual level the use of metacognitive strategies, for example, awareness of one‘s own learning
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