Global warming is defined as a serious phenomenon recently and also it will impact the human health. The impact of the global warming on infectious diseases has been highlighted in this paper. The infectious diseases have been emphasized in two major classifications which are the water and the foodborne infectious diseases as well as the vector borne infectious diseases. Even if the global warming is not easy to solve, there are some methods should be taken to mitigate this phenomenon. The study has shown that the global warming has various negative effects on human health including infectious diseases. Keywords: global warming, infectious disease, waterborne infection, vector borne infection 1. Introduction
As Khasnis & Nettleman’s (2005) study stated the following: The concept of global warming requires a basic understanding of the greenhouse effect. Solar radiation passes through the atmosphere and is absorbed at the Earth’s surface. This heat is lost from the earth’s surface as infrared radiation. The infrared radiation cannot escape the atmosphere as easily as the solar radiation enters. Some of it is trapped by a number of gases which act similar to the glass in a greenhouse—heat can enter but cannot exit—resulting in the Greenhouse Effect. (p. 690) As everyone knows that global warming is defined as the increase of the average temperature on Earth. The temperature on Earth will rise significantly when heat from the sun is trapped in Earth’s atmosphere. It is also known as the main reason that causes damages to the ozone layer. Besides that, natural disasters, such as hurricanes; droughts; and floods, are becoming more frequent. The temperature at the Earth's Poles is also rising rapidly. The major factors leading to global warming are greenhouse effects and deforestations. In the past years, the impacts of global warming were not noticed or taken seriously by the public because the situation was not widespread and serious. In the recent years, global warming is unambiguously becoming a phenomenon that relates to the human health. This is because the global warming influences the development of infectious disease. Thus, this situation has become a hot topic in all sectors of the community. What are the impacts of global warming on infectious disease? The warming of the temperature influences two major infectious diseases. These two major infectious diseases are water and food borne infection, as well as, vector borne infection. 2. Water and Food Borne Infection
The water is a significant necessity to all organisms on the Earth that used to sustain their life. Nevertheless, the water quality is getting worse because of the impact of global warming. This will affect the human health seriously. As the water borne diseases are mainly related to the impact of global warming on the hydrologic cycle and the sewage system. Firstly, the hydrologic cycle is the water of ground and ocean through the evaporation and the transpiration into vapor, when water vapor rose to a certain height and condenses into the clouds, and then rainfall. Global warming that the temperature of atmospheric and water rise, accelerate the hydrologic cycle. The rising temperature of atmospheric leads to the speeding up of evaporation and then generates the overmuch rainfall, flood and drought. These phenomena will accelerate the waterborne infectious diseases. The overmuch rainfall and flood will generate the wet temperature that is suitable to the bacteria for breeding. On the other hand, the drought will lead to the water shortage and the water pollution and then cause the breeding of the bacteria. In this case, the water and food supply as well as sewage system that are not fully functional are the main instigators for spreading water and the foodborne infectious diseases, especially in the developing countries (Kurane, 2010). The reason is because most of bacteria, viruses and protozoa that generate the pathogens are breeding in the...
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