China & Democracy Post Mao

Topics: People's Republic of China, Communism, Mao Zedong Pages: 50 (13175 words) Published: September 9, 2014


China and Democracy Post Mao

The Potential Power of China’s New Middle Class

By: Ryan Smith
Senior Thesis
Professor Felker

Abstract: This paper examines China during the reform era after Mao. It tries to understand how a country, which has been engaging in economic liberal reforms since 1978, has been able to resist any major political reforms. The answer to this question lies with the newly created middle class in China. The reforms initiated by the CCP have resulted in impressive rates of economic growth which in turn have given rise to a middle class. The fact that the CCP was the reason and facilitator of this growth has resulted in a middle class who has seen no reason to upset the balance and demand reform. This has resulted in a paradoxical relationship for the CCP in regards to capitalism. Capitalism, the ideological enemy of Communism, has proven to be the necessary tool for the CCP to be seen as legitimate. The CCP is still in power because it is seen as economically legitimate in the eyes of their middle class.

Outline

I. Introduction
A: Theoretical framework for the question
B: Performance legitimacy

II. Brief Leadership history of China in 20th Century
A: Chairman Mao
B: Deng Xiaoping

III. A Secondary force for democracy
A: Cultural perspective
B: Coordination goods

IV. Globalization
A: NGOs
B: The internet

V. Social Unrest
A: Tiananmen Square
B: Hong Kong
C: The role of corruption

VI. Economic Boom and the rise of the Middle class
A: Soeharto
B: Economic boom since 1978
C: The Chinese stock market
D: Private property
E: Red capitalists
F: Middle class composition and implications

VII. Conclusion
A: Where this leaves China

I. Introduction

On September 9th 1976 Chairman Mao Zedong, the pioneer of Communism in China, passed away and after a power struggle that took a couple of years, Deng Xiaoping rose to take his place (CIA 2007). With Mao’s passing, China shed the backward and stifling economic policies of a Stalinist state and catapulted itself down the road of modernization at a ferocious pace. Under the leadership of Deng, China underwent one of the most dynamic economic transformations the world has ever seen.

Almost 30 years have passed since Mao died, and China has now become one of the most dominant economies today. It is currently the fourth largest economy in the world and is growing at the fastest rate of any major economy (CIA 2007). Deng’s reforms addressed China’s economic backwardness but did little to address China’s repressive political system. To this day the CCP, or China’s Communist Party, is still very firmly in power. There is no questioning the CCP’s authority by the people of China.

This situation of economic reform but political authoritarianism has puzzled political theorists and analysts for the last 30 years. How has the CCP been able to walk this line for so long? Historically, with almost no exceptions, once major free market reforms are undertaken political liberalization and reforms follow. The former USSR is the classic example of this belief. The answers to this intriguing question vary greatly. Many would say that just enough time hasn’t passed. People under this train of thought would believe that political reform in China is merely a waiting game. Other theorists point to the Confucian culture that dominates China as an explanation for the lack of reform. Another answer is the CCP’s skillful compromises and use of tight political control to maintain power in the country. I am going to examine all of these possible explanations. But, in the end none of these answers adequately explain why China hasn’t reformed politically. The answer lies in China’s newly created middle class. The CCP initiated the reforms that resulted in the middle class’s creation. The CCP’s continued...

Bibliography: Cai, Yongshun. “China’s moderate middle class.” Asian Survey. Vol. 45 pp. 777-799. 2005.
Casil, Janice
Chen, An. “Rising Politics and its Impact on China’s Path to Democracy.” Democratization. Vol. 10 No. 2 Summer 2003 pp 141-162. Ebsco. Jan. 2007.
CIA. www.CIA.gov. 2007
Dickson, Bruce
Downs, Bruce, Bueno de Mequita, George. “Development and Democracy.” Foreign Affairs. Sept. 2005. Vol. 84 Issue 5, pp. 77-86. Ebsco Jan. 2007.
Friedman, Edward. The Politics of Democratization. Boulder: Westview Press. 1994.
Fukuyama, Francis. The End of History and the Last Man. New York: The Free press. 1992.
Gallagher, Mary. “Contagious Capitalism: Globalization and the Politics of Labor in China.” Princeton University Press. 2005. Ebsco Jan. 2007.
Guo, Sujian. “The Ownership Reform in China: what direction and how far?” Journal of Contemporary China. August 2003. Ebsco Jan. 2007.

Hart-Landsberg, Martin Paul Burkett. “China and Socialism.” Critical Asian Studies. 2005. Ebsco Jan. 2007.
Huchet, Jean-Francois. “The Emergence of Capitalism in China: An Historical Perspective and Its Impact on the Political System.” Social Research. 2006. Vol, 73: No 1. Ebsco Jan 2007.
Hughes, Neil. “Smashing the Iron Rice Bowl.” Foreign Affairs. August 1998. Ebsco Feb. 2007.
Huntington, Samuel. The Third Wave. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 1991.
Khan, Joseph. “China Back Property Law, Buoying Middle Class.” The New York Times. March, 2007.
Khan, Joseph. “Rivals Seek to Expand Freedoms in China.” The New York Times. Feb. 2007.
Li, He. “Emergence of the Chinese Middle Class and Its Implications.” Heldref Publications. 2006. Ebsco Jan. 2007.
Mackerras, Colin. “Red star over East Asia: communist states and communist parties.” Routledge. 1998.
McCormick, Barrett. Political Reform in Post-Mao China. Los Angeles: University of California Press. 1990.
Mesquita Bruce, George Downs. “Development and Democracy.” Foreign Affairs. Vol. 84 pp. 77-86. Sept/Oct. 2005
Morton, Katherine
Nathan, Andrew. China’s Crisis Dilemmas of Reform and Prospects for Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press. 1990.
Sing, Ming. “Public Support for Democracy in Hong Kong.” Democratization. Vol. 12 No. 2, April 2005, pp. 244-261. Ebsco Jan. 2007.
Tsai, Kellee. “Capitalists without a Class: Political Diversity Among Private Entrepreneurs in China.” Sage Publications. 2005. Ebsco Jan. 2007.
Tanner, Murray
Yao, Xinzhong. An Introduction to Confucianism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2000.
Yongnian, Zheng. Will China Become Democratic? Singapore: Eastern University Press. 2004.
Zhao, Suisheng
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay about Democracy in China
  • Essay about China
  • Evaluating Mao and China Essay
  • china mao zedong Essay
  • Citigroup in Post
  • democracy Essay
  • Essay about Mao Outline
  • China Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free
BBC_The Mystery of Dark Energy.HDTVRip.by RockeT [Virtus KazTorrentS].avi | Morden im Norden (16) | Taxi 5 HD 2018