Chapter 1 THE NATURE OF MORALITY

Topics: Ethics, Morality, Mores Pages: 17 (510 words) Published: January 26, 2015
Chapter 1
THE NATURE OF
MORALITY

Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

ETHICAL







Moral
Right
Good
Fair
Just
Proper
Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

INDUSTRIAL OR BUSINESS
ETHICS
• The study of what constitutes moral, right or good
conduct in a business context.
• BUSINESS: any for-profit organization

Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

MORAL OR ETHICAL
STANDARDS
• Concern behavior that can have serious
consequences to human welfare.
• IMMORAL violates moral standards
• NON-MORAL does not concern moral
standards, amoral; such as etiquette

Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

SOUNDNESS OF MORAL
STANDARDS
• Depends on the adequacy of the reasons which
support or justify them. 





Influenced by religion, esp. Golden Rule 
Social norms
Laws often form minimum standards 
Professional codes of conduct
Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

ETHICAL RELATIVISM
• What is right in one place or time may be wrong
in another.
• Ethical standards solely depend on moral system
of the society in which the act/s occur.

Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

Results
• No moral criticism of society's norms
• Ethical or moral progress meaningless
• People who encourage moral reform are
immoral
• The minority is immoral until it becomes the
majority

Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

So,
• Mafia activities are moral within their social
group
• Business may adopt its own moral code which
is not known by general public
• Closely related to Situational Ethics.

Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

PARADOX OF HEDONISM
• Hedonism: The doctrine that personal interest,
pleasure or happiness is the sole or chief purpose
in life.

Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

Research suggests
1. People who are chiefly concerned with their
own interests tend to have less happy and
less satisfying lives.
2. People who primarily seek their own
happiness are less happy than those who are
concerned about others.

Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

Research suggests (cont.)
3. People often find greater satisfaction in
living by a moral code than in living for selfinterest.
4. Therefore, people have self-interested
reasons to be less self-interested.
** To be happy, work for the happiness of others **

Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

PERSONAL CONSEQUENCES OF
ADOPTING A MORAL CODE
1.

2.
3.

Person believes principle/s
is/are important and welljustified.
Conduct strongly motivated
to conform to code.
Feels guilty after nonconforming behavior =>
conscience.

4.

5.

6.

Tends to disapprove of others
whose behavior does not
conform.
Tends to admire others
whose behavior conforms to
the Moral Code.
Self-interest generally
moderated by code.

Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

PERSONAL CONSEQUENCES OF
ADOPTING A MORAL CODE (cont.)
7. May experience conflict between Moral Code
and business demands--intrapsychic conflict:





organization norms
loyalty, commitment
conformity pressure
bystander apathy:
responsibility =
1
no. in group

Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

MORAL AND ETHICAL
REASONING
• Premise 1: Moral standard
• Premise 2: Facts
• Conclusion: Moral judgment

Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

Arguments are
• Valid:

Conclusion logically follows from
premises.
• Invalid: Conclusion does not logically follow
• Sound: True premises and valid reasoning.
• Unsound: One or more false premises or invalid
reasoning.
Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

Minimum standards for moral
judgments
• Logical, sound reasoning
• Based on facts
• Based on acceptable moral principles,
considered beliefs

Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

Questions? 

Copyright, J. Humble, 2010

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