Janice S. Madarang
MPA620 – Administrative Innovations and
WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE
structuring, enhancing and disseminating the
knowledge of an organization. Knowledge
Getting the right information, to the right person, at the
right time and cost
Organizing, distilling and presenting information in a
timely, relevant, accurate and simple manner
Leveraging both tacit and explicit knowledge in a
Using the information delivered to enable informed
According to Botha et al (2008) these are:
Culture: One which is supportive of knowledge
management, and the processes it implies particularly knowledge sharing. Infrastructure: Support
structures, and collaboration.
Measures: Developing a process and design for
Technology: Can offer great advantages in certain
areas. Similarly, if misused, it can sabotage the KM
process. Whether technology deserves its status as
an enabler is debatable, but it is nonetheless
Determining the Organization's Knowledge and
Knowledge Discovery and Detection: Refers to the
processes of identifying existing knowledge sources, as
well as discovering hidden knowledge in data and
information. This knowledge resides both inside the
organization and externally, in customers, suppliers,
Explicit knowledge: Document management, intelligence
gathering, data mining, text mining etc. IT is useful/crucial in this respect.
Tacit (embodied) knowledge: Includes tools/practices such as knowledge surveys, questionnaires, individual interviews, group interviews, focus groups, network analysis, and observation. IT has a more limited and indirect role.
Embedded knowledge: Includes observation, analysis, reverse
engineering, and modeling tools to identify knowledge stored within
Determining the Organization's Knowledge
and Know-how: ..cont..
process of mapping, categorizing, indexing, and evaluating
organizational knowledge assets.This is heavily supported
by IT, which can use complex categorization and retrieval
mechanisms to organize knowledge assets in multiple ways.
Tacit (embodied) knowledge: This is done through the
use of focus groups, expertise guides, and knowledge
coordinators (Gamble & Blackwell 2001).
Embedded knowledge: Tools include job/workplace
design, workflow analyses and performance measures
(Gamble & Blackwell 2001)
Tactical Knowledge Management Best Practices:
Knowledge Sharing: Perhaps the most important process
in KM, it plays a determinant role for both knowledge
reuse and knowledge creation. The factors below
summarize the key considerations with the exception of
cultural issues, which are discussed further down.
Explicit knowledge: Depends on articulation of needs,
awareness of knowledge, access to knowledge, guidance in the knowledge sharing process, and completeness of the knowledge sources (Bukowitz & Williams 1999). IT systems and content
management are extremely important in this process.
Tacit (embodied) knowledge: This depends on socialization,
particularly within informal networks. Culture is particularly important in this area. Tacit knowledge can rarely be effectively codified without losing the essence that makes it so valuable to begin with, so the focus should be on supporting work
relationships. IT has a secondary supporting role in this context, primarily as an expert finder and as offering support in the socialization process (e.g. through groupware applications). Embedded knowledge: Use of scenario planning, after action
reviews, and management training (Gamble & Blackwell 2001).
IT has a role in mapping,...
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