Animal Husbandry Production and Global Climate Change
Lou yujie Zhaoli
Faculty of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin, 130118, China Abstract: The influence of methane and ammonia which come from animal production on global climate changes was discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, the author analyzed the effect of this change on agriculture and animal industry, and also analyzed its control measures in this article.. Key words: animal industry production, global climate change, methane, ammonia There is only one earth in the world, so the problem of the global environmental change is generally paid attention around the world. Increasing human activities leads to the deterioration of ecological environment. According to UNEP(Union Nations Environment Plan Department) and WMO(World Meteorology Organization), because of greenhouse effect, it is possible that average air temperature of the earth is increased by 0.5~2.0? , change takes place in the pattern of rain and snow, rainfall and evaporation are increased by 2%~13% and Asian monsoon system is strengthened. All these changes will have great impact on the utilization of land and agriculture in our country. Fluctuation and change of future climate, especially the effect of the warm-increasing of greenhouse gases, may further lead to the disaster of flood and drought. According to data concerned, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen oxide and so on are major gases resulting in greenhouse effect. 15%~20% of results of climate warming are due to methane, which is the second major greenhouse gas next to carbon dioxide and whose influence is 21 times that of carbon dioxide , so the problem of emission of methane is concerned by all professionals. During animal industry, the output of methane emitted from ruminants accounts for 1/5 of that in atmosphere. In particular, cattle produce the greatest amount of methane, being 2~3 times that of other ruminants. Other livestocks are also major resources creating greenhouse effect in the globe, for they also release large amount of gases, such as carbon dioxide and ammonia making air pollution heavier. Consequently, it is very important to control harmful gases of animal husbandry production. 1.0RUMENTAL DIGESTION AND THE PRODUCTION OF METHANE Methane is a product of ruminant regular digestion. Methane in rumen is produced by many kinds of methane bacteria through the reduction reaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. It has stable chemical character and is emitted outside through mouth in the form of eructation. It is very difficult to be digested in the body. In general, 2%~12% of the total energy assimilated by ruminants is lost in the form of methane. 1.1 FACTERS THAT INFLUENCE THE PRODUCTION OF METHANE The output of methane is related to rumen contents, type of dietary carbohydrate and VFA(volative fatty acid) in rumen. Methane bacteria in rumen abundantly adhere to ciliates. The relation of them two is facultative symbiosis. Ciliate promotes the production of methane. Protozoa is an important microbe producing methane in rumen. Cooperative function of ciliate and protozoa controls the production and output of methane. It is very
possible that influence of type of carbohydrate on the output of methane is by way of its influence on pH and microbe flora in rumen. There is a highly positive correlation between the output of degradated ADF (Acid Detergent Fiber) and NDF(Neutral Detergent Fiber) and the output of methane. Under the condition of diet with different ratio of concentrate and roughage, the output of VFA in rumen has relevance with that of methane. There is a highly negative correlation between the output of propionate and that of methane, on the contrary, the output of methane has a highly positive correlation with both that of acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate. If the proportion of cereal concentrate accounts for 80% of diet, 3%~4% of forage energy can be...
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