Allies or Adversaries? Canada-China Relations
China is the third largest export destination and second largest source of imports for Canada. However, the Sino-Canadian relations are not as stable and positive as the Canadian-American relations. Canada is one of the world's richest and most economically developed countries. China is the biggest developing country and Communist country in the world. China is also the world's second largest economy after the United States; it is considered an emerging economy because of its rapid growth and industrialization after the “Reform and Opining up policy” in 1978. The Chinese market, with dramatically increasing Chinese economy, has become more and more important for Canadian companies since the Financial Crisis in 2008. The export of resource to China and the increasing of immigration for Chinese are both the stimulus measures in Canada. The non-governmental communication is “fiery”, which connect these two nations closely. Unfortunately, the official communication between Chinese government and Canadian government are kept a low profile beginning in 1970s, which fell into low ebb through the Conservative Party of Canada in power after 2006. The Sino-Canadian relations recovered in 2012 but fell down again shortly. Why are the Sino-Canadian relations like riding a “roller-coaster”? This essay will analysis the reason of the unstable Sino-Canadian relations through different history periods, the economic growth in China and the Political struggles between Canada and China. Thus, are Canada and China friends or enemies? It depends on whether we look at economic or politics. The development of Sino-Canadian relations can be divided in three periods, the Initial Period (1971-2005), the Freeze-up Period (2006-2010) and the Recovery Period (2011- ). The Journal article “the Contemporary China studies in Canada” by Wang Xinying, published in The contemporary world and socialism, an official journal magazine by Compilation and translation bureau of the CPC, describe a general relations between Beijing and Ottawa from 1970s to 2000s.The Initial period can also called “the Honeymoon Period” because the Canadian federal government began to increase the communication with China through “education, agricultural, medical and civil issues” in 1980s. Wang believed that the Canadian loans and aid helps China to increase the develop of economic. Meanwhile, there are many of Chinese research programs were subsidized by Canadian federal government, which also promoted the growth of Chinese science and technology. The “Initial Period” or “Honeymoon period” ended in 2006 when Stephen Harper became the Prime Minister of Canada. Mr. Harper and new Canadian government began to reduce the communication with China and focus on keep good relationship with the United States. Canadian government “condemned Chinese government in the issues of Falungong, Taiwan and Tibet which is inhuman” . After the Dalai Lama became an Honorary Citizen of Canada and Stephen Harper refused to attend the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008, the Sino-Canadian relations “dropped to freezing point” . The year of 2011 was a crucial year to recovery the relations through “...the Canadian government confirmed ten “Priority Foreign Countries”, includes China, as their new “Foreign Policy Plan (FPP)” on December 20th, 2011... Meanwhile, the Canadian Premier Minister Stephen Harper looked forward to visit China soon”. The new FPP reveal that the Canadian government begins to recover the Sino-Canadian relations, and Stephen Harper visited China and signed the documents about trading and increase non-governmental communication in the beginning of 2012, which is the “Recovery Period”. China is one of the most important markets for Canadian companies. The book Canada-china: Building a strong economic partnership, set up an economic infrastructure between Canada and China. “Since 2006, the Asia–Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative (APGCI)...
References: Duane Bratt (2007)Mr. Harper Goes to War: Canada, Afghanistan, and the Return of “High Politics”in Canadian Foreign Policy. Canadian Journal of Political Science,10, 174-220.
Teresa Wright (2011)Inside the Authoritarian State : Perpetuating Communist Party Rule in China. Journal of International Affairs, 1, 35-41.
Wang Xinying(2013) Contemporary China studies in Canada.The contemporary world and socialism,10, 25-30.
Canadian Chamber of Commerce, ebrary, I., & Canadian Electronic Library (Firm). (2010). Canada-china: Building a strong economic partnership. Ottawa, Ont: Canadian Chamber of Commerce.
Campbell Clark. (2012, March 15). Bo Xilai 's ouster severs vital Canada-China link. The Global and Mail. Reserved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/bo-xilais-ouster-severs-vital-canada-china-link/article4101472/
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