29 Deng Xiaoping Reform

Topics: Deng Xiaoping, Karl Marx, Marxism Pages: 14 (583 words) Published: April 27, 2015
Deng Xiaoping
(22 August 1904  – 19 February 1997)

Greatest contributions
to modern China:
1. Economic Reform
since 1979;
Open door policy to
attract foreign
Have the college
entrance examinations
reinstated in 1977;

College Entrance Exams 1977

During the Cultural
Revolution, millions of
middle school and high
school graduates were
assigned to work on
farms, in factories and the
Held in winter instead of
summer, 5,700,000 people
participated the 1977
college entrance exams!

"Poverty is not socialism.“
reinterpretation of Marxism

Ascending to power in 1978, Deng ridiculed 嘲讽
a Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) slogan that held
it was "better to be poor under socialism than rich
under capitalism."
The blunt, practical Deng offered instead: "Poverty
is not socialism."
He encouraged the creation of a market economy
and capitalist-like enterprises, and by the early
1990s his reforms had helped lift an estimated 170
million peasants out of extreme poverty.

Principles of Distribution of Wealth
Karl Marx

Lower stage of
【 gèjìnsuǒnéng‘
ànláofēnpèi 】 from
each according to his
ability, to each according
to his work - the socialist
principle of distribution.

Higher phase of
communisim –Utopian?
【 gèjìnsuǒnéng‘
ànxūfēnpèi 】 from
each according to his
ability, to each according
to his needs - the
communist principle of

Class Struggle 阶级斗争

The Communist Manifesto, originally titled
Manifesto of the Communist Party (
German: Manifest der Kommunistischen
Partei) is a short 1848 book written by the
German Marxist political theorists Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels. It has since been
recognized as one of the world's most
influential political manuscripts.

Secret of how capitalism
accumulates its wealth
“Surplus value” 剩余价值
 "Surplus-value and the rate of surplus-value
are... the invisible essence to be investigated,
whereas the rate of profit and hence the form
of surplus-value as profit are visible surface
phenomena" - Karl Marx, Capital Vol. 3,
Pelican edition, p. 134
 Capitalism: a Love Story, a film directed
Michael Moore 2009

The Living Standard
By the end of the Cultural Revolution (19661976), the living standard in the mainland China is 32 times lower than that of Taiwan
and Hong Kong;
 Nowadays, thousands of Chinese students
come to the United States, paying out of
state tuition (as a result of Deng Xiaoping’s
economic reform, their parents could afford

Deng Xiaoping Theory
a Chinese Meiji Transformation?

Chief Architect of the
Chinese economic
 Four modernizations
四个现代化 of
agriculture, industry,
science &
technology, and
national defense
(Ebrey 475);

Apposition vs. Opposition
 The

philosophical implication of the
Deng Xiaoping Reforms;
 Juxtaposed with reading of Robert
Frost’s famous poem: The Road Not

Content of the Reform
Established special economic zones 经济特区
(Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shantou, and Xiamen, etc.,
later Shanghai);
 Attract foreign investment;
 Household-responsibility system (unlike the
people’s communes model);
 Market economy
 Private ownership;
 Incentives—surplus goods to sell for extra cash;

Consequences of
Deng Xiaoping’s Consequentialism

As early as 1961, Deng Xiaoping famously
said, "It does not matter whether it's a white
cat or a black, I think; a cat that catches mice
[rats] is a good cat.”

Not a Thorough Reform
 The

political structure is not touched;
 Widely criticized for this;
 Without a thorough political reform,
private property can’t be fully protected;
 Separation of powers vs. an extremely
centralized government under one party;

A Tight Leash
 Modernizations

without democracy turns
out to be...
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