Why did Mao launch the Cultural Revolution? For instance, do you think the occurrence of the CR had any connections with the CCP's organizing principle and guiding ideologies, such as democratic dictatorship and the democratic-centralism, or was caused more by other reasons? Also, although many things people did during the Cultural Revolution look so absurd, irrational, and even cruel today, millions of Chinese, especially the Chinese youth seemed to be obsessed with the movement during that time. What do you think motivated the public to respond to Mao's "last revolution" so actively? Please give your explanations. Moreover, please also discuss: How some Cultural Revolution mentality or phenomena remain working nowadays and why?
Cultural Revolution was the most massive political campaign launched after the establishment of People’s Republic of China. It was a torture to many people who experienced Cultural Revolution (CR). This revolution which has brought tremendous influence was very a remarkable event in China. This essay will be focused more on cause of CR, public response and its remaining effect. 2. The background of Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution was a social transformation campaign initiated by Mai Zedong who was the top leader of CCP after 1949. This tragedy was actually caused to consolidate the CCP’s ideology which is socialism. In order to achieve ideology modification, Cultural Revolution was aimed to criticize all anti-socialist intellectuals and supporters of capitalist. 3. The reason for Cultural Revolution
3.1 Cultural Revolution was the means adopted by Mao Zedong to consolidate his power in CCP. Before the occurrence of Cultural Revolution, Mao has implemented a series of campaign to shift China into a socialist economic system country. The success of “China’s First Five Year Plan” provided CCP confidence in launching “Three Red Banners”. However, CCP was too optimistic towards it and has set up many unrealistic and intensive targets. “The Great Leap Forward” and “People’s Communes” have resulted in a great economic recession. Mao therefore lost his political power and Liu Shaoqi replaced Mao to be the leader of CCP. In my point of view, Mao was a very aggressive political leader so prestige, power and status were of vital importance to him. Mao adopted CR to criticize intellectuals who supported capitalism and more importantly to weaken the power of Liu Shaoqi who perceived pragmatic and moderate attitudes towards economic development. Liu’s belief was contradictory to Mao’s which was relatively more utopia. Because of Mao’s desire to gain back political power and therefore CR is initiated to defeat Liu and other intellectuals who against communism. 3.2 The one party system also contributed to the appearance of CR. As we all know, CCP was the only dominant party in China. The guiding principle was on the base of Marxism-Leninism which was a communist ideology. Many social transformation policies were designed on the principle of socialism. Guo(2013) stated that communist ideology has been employed by Mao to justify and guide policy change and implementation. At that time, communism was intensively promoted by Mao. Since CCP was the only party monopolized the state’s governance, no other political ideology opposing communism was allowed. All political elite and people were required to share to same ideology with CCP. As CCP was aimed to alleviate class struggles and to unify working class, students and peasants and those who are the lower class in the society, the existence of class struggle between Bourgeoisie and Proletariat totally violated CCP’s guiding principle which perceived that Bourgeoisie and Proletariat were hostile. This is also why Cultural Revolution could be called the “Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution”. Indeed, we can distinguish two factions developed in CCP. The first faction in favor of pure communism was guided by...
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