Expansion through conquest
expansion under Muhammad, 622-632
expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632-661
expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750
two types of conversions:
conversion of religion
conversion of language
the two normally stick together, first they are conquered and years later most, but not all convert to the religion as well.
After the Arabic/Muslim conquests some areas where conquered back, such as Spain and Sicily.
The Umayyads where replaced by another dynasty called Abbasid, 750-1258 (lost control in 965), but the Umayyad Caliphate was still in Spain, which they held on to.
Ottoman Empire was the biggest and largest empire, 1299-1924. Their language was on the other hand not Arabic, but Turkish.
The countries such as China, Indonesia etc. weren’t conquered, but there were still a large number here who converted. The reason the Muslims went this way, east, was the trading routes.
Why do people convert:
The desire for something better, more sophisticated than what you have. (Indonesia, Sudan, Ethiopia etc.) “the personal story”, the wish to marry a person of religion. Political ruling
It is impossible to know for sure why people convert, but we can have some ideas.
Why did the Arabic Muslim expand and how
Sometimes people conquer large areas and succeed
If a country/area is in dispute with themselves and falling apart, disunited, it becomes easier for conquerors to conquer (like when the Christians conquered back Spain) Jihad (there is a big difference in what people think about Jihad today, and what they thought then!) Two Jihads today
The Greater Jihad the struggle to be a better person
The lower Jihad when you are attacked, self-defence
Only one Jihad! the war, the conquests.
A set of rules: Why you should fight, how you should fight, who you should fight.
More than a text – exist in reciting
The Qur’an wasn’t put...
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