Computer Organization

Topics: Computer, Central processing unit, Processor register Pages: 12 (1669 words) Published: February 9, 2014
Computer Organization with Assembly Language

Digital Computer:

A digital computer is a fast electronic calculating machine that accepts digitized input information, processes it according to a list of internally stored instructions, and produces the resulting output information.

Types of Computers:

1. Personal Computers
2. Workstations
3. Mainframes
4. Supercomputers

Basic Operation of a Computer

1. The computer accepts information in the form of programs and data through an input unit and stores it in memory.

2. Information stored in the memory is fetched, under program control, into an arithmetic and logic unit, where it is processed.

3. Processed information leaves the computer through an output unit.

4. All activities inside the machine are directed by the control unit.

Computer Organization and Architecture:

Computer Organization
It refers to the operational units and their interconnections that realize the architectural specifications.

Hardware details transparent to the programmer
Control signal
Interfacing device to computer
Memory used

Computer Architecture
It refers to those attributes of a system visible to programmer or that have direct impact on the logical execution of a program.

Instruction set
Number of bit that represent various data types
Input and output mechanism
Addressing memory

Architectural design
16 BIT SAP -1 (speed, cost, physical and capacity)

Block diagram:

Structure and Function:

Hierarchical System
Is a set of inter related subsystems and each level consists of a set of components concern with structure and function with a top down approach:

Structure – The way in which the components are inter related
Functions – The operation of each individual component as part of the structure

The basic functions that a computer can perform in terms of data processing, data storage, data movement and control:
Operating Environment
(Source and Destination of Data)

Data Movement Apparatus

Control Mechanism

Data Storage FacilityData Processing Facility

Functional View of the Computer
Process Data:
The computer must be able to process data in a wide variety of forms and the range of processing requirements with a few fundamental methods or types of data processing. The data come in and get processed and the result go out immediately Store Data:

The computer must temporarily store at least those pieces of data that are being worked on at any given moment. There is at least a short term data storage function and a long term

Functional Units of a Computer:

Assembly Language:
Assembly language is a set of words that tells the computer what to do. The words in the assembly language, instruction set that refers to the computer components directly Registers:
It is used to control the instructions being executed to handle addressing of memory and to provide an arithmetic capability The register is addressable by name
Internal Register:
AH – ALAccumulator
BH – BLBase
CH – CLCount
DH - DL Data
SPStack Pointer
BPBase Pointer
SISource Index
DIDestination Index
CSCode Segment
DSData Segment
SSStack Segment
ESExtra Segment
IPInstruction Pointer
General Purpose Register:
1. AX Register
The primary accumulator is used for operation involving input/output and most arithmetic 2. BX Register
Known as a Base Register since it is the only general purpose register that can be used as an index to external addressing and another common purpose is for computation 3. CX Register
Known as the count registers. It may contain a value to control the number of times a loop is repeated or a value to shift bits from left or right. The CX is also used in computation 4. DX Register

Known as the data register, since...
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